The Effect of Network Capability and Organizational Learning Capability on Transformational Leadership in Forming Innovative Work Behavior Mediated by Critical Thinking Skills at PT Bank Bukopin, Tbk.

Nina Taniya, Anton Wachidin Widjaja


This study aims to examine the effect of network capability and organizational learning capability on transformational leadership in forming innovative work behavior mediated by critical thinking skills. This study used Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) analysis with the AMOS program which involved 115 Branch Managers Regional I-V at PT Bank Bukopin, Tbk. The results of the study prove that Network Capability, Organizational Learning Capability can positively influence Transformational Leadership and mediation of Critical Thinking Skills can positively influence Transformational Leadership to form Innovative Work Behavior. Further research is expected to be able to expand research to other institutions outside banking service institutions, such as the insurance service industry or other sectors that have a wide area coverage.


network capability, organizational learning capability, transformational leadership, critical thinking skills, innovative work behavior

Full Text:



Afsar, B., Badir, Y.F., & Saeed, B. (2014). Transformational Leadership and Innovative Work Behaviour. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 114(8), 1270-1300.

Albrecht, D.E., Albrecht, C.M., & Murguia, E. (2005). Minority Concentration, Disadvantage, and Inequality in the Nonmetropolitan United States. The Sociological Quarterly, 46(3), 503-523.

Ashkanasy, N.M. (2002). Studies of Cognition and Emotions in Organizations: Attributions, Affective Events, Emotional Intelligence and Perception of Emotion. Australian Journal of Management, 27, 11-21.

Avolio, B.J., & Bass, B.M. (1994). Improving Organizational Effectiveness through Transformational Leadership. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Avolio, B.J. & Bass, B.M. (2002). Developing Potential Across A Full Range of Leadership. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Banutu-Gomez, M.B. (2004). Great Leaders Teach Exemplary Followership and Serve as Servant Leaders. Journal of American Academy of Business, 4(1/2), 143-153.

Barbuto, J. E. & Burbach, M. E. (2006). The Emotional Intelligence of Transformational Leaders: A Field Study of Elected Officials. The Journal of Social Psychology, 146, 51-64. August 7, 2010.

Barney, J.B. & Arikan, A.M. (2017). The Resource-based View. In M.A. Hitt, R.E. Freeman, & J.S. Harrison (Ed.). The Blackwell Handbook of Strategic Management (pp. 123-182). Oxford: Blackwell.

Basu, R., & Green, S. G. (1997). Leader-Member Exchange and Transformational Leadership: An Empirical Examination of Innovative Behaviors in Leader-Member Dyads. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 27, 477–499.

Bass, B.M. (1985). Leadership and Performance Beyond Expectations. New York: Free Press.

Bass, B.M. (1995). Theory of Transformational Leadership Redux. Leadership Quarterly, 6, 463-478.

Bass, B.M. & Avolio, B.J. (1993). Transformational Leadership and Organizational Culture. Public Administration Quarterly, 17, 112–121.

Bass, B.M. & Avolio, B.J. (2000). MLQ: Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire Technical Report. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Bengesi, K.M.K. & Le Roux, I. (2014). The Influence of Dimensions of Networking Capability in Small and Medium Enterprise Performance. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 5(2), 189-200.

Bono, J.E. & Anderson, M.H. (2005). The Advice and Influence Networks of Transformational Leaders. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(6), 1306-1314.

Brass, D.J., Zacarro, S.J., & Klimoski, R. (2001). The Nature of Organizational Leadership: Understanding the Performance Imperatives Confronting Today’s Leaders. San Francisco, CA: Wiley.

Burgelman R., Kosnik T., & Van den Poel, M. (1988). Toward an Innovative Capability Audit Framework. In R. Burgelman & M. Maidique (Ed.). Strategic Management of Technology and Innovation (pp 31-44). Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin.

Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership. New York: Harper dan Row.

Cheung, M.F.Y. & Wong, C. (2011). Transformational Leadership, Leader Support, and Employee Creativity. Leadership & Organization Development, 32(7), 656-672.

Choi S.B., Kim K., Ullah E., & Kang S. (2016). How Transformational Leadership Facilitates Innovative Behaviour of Korean Workers Examining Mediating and Moderating Processes. Personnel Review, 45(3), 459 - 479.

Day, D.V. & O’Connor, P.M. (2003). Leadership Development: Understanding the Process. In S.E. Murphy & R.E. Riggio (Ed.), The Future of Leadership Development (pp 11-28). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Deane, M. & Borg, E. (2011). Measuring the Outcomes of Individualized Writing Instruction: A Multilayered Approach to Capturing Changes in Students’ Texts. Teaching in Higher Education, 16(3), 319-331.

De Jong, J.P. & Den Hartog, D.N. (2010). Measuring Innovative Work Behaviour. Creativity and Innovation Management, 19(1), 23-36.

De Meyer, A. & Garg, S. (2005). Inspire to Innovate: Management & Innovation in Asia. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Dwyer, G., Heracleous, L., & Doyle, C. (2003). Grounding Strategic Change Practice in Theory: The Case of Avaya Ireland 1992-2000. Wiley Interscience: Strategic Change, 12, 123-135.

Facione, Peter A. (2015). Critical Thinking: What It Is and Why It Counts. Insight Assessment. January 2015.

Garcia-Morales, V.J., Jimenez-Barrionuevo, M.M., & Gutierrez-Gutierrez, L. (2012). Transformational Leadership Influence on Organizational Performance through Organizational Learning and Innovation. Journal of Business Research, 65(7), 1040–1050.

Garvin, David A. (1993). Building a Learning Organization. Harvard Business Review, 71, 78-91.

Garvin, D.A., Edmonson, A.C., & Gino, F. (2008). Is Yours a Learning Organization? Harvard Business Review, 86(3), 109-134.

Goldman, A.I. (1999). Knowledge in A Social World. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Gomes, G. & Wojahn, R.M. (2017). Organizational Learning Capability, Innovation and Performance: Study in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMES). RAUSP Management Journal, 163-175.

Gomez, P. Jerez, Lorente, J. Cespedes, & Valle, R. (2005). Organizational Learning Capability: A Proposal of Measurement. Journal of Business Research, 58(6), 715-725.

Ghozali, Imam (2011). Aplikasi Analisis Multivariate dengan Program IBM SPSS 19. Semarang: Badan Penerbit Universitas Diponegoro.

Grant, R.M. (2000). Shifts in the World Economy: The Drivers of Knowledge. Knowledge Horizons: The Present and The Promise of Knowledge Management. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann, 27-53.

Gulati, R., Nohria, N., & Zaheer, A. (2000). Strategic Networks. Strategic Management Journal, 21(3), 203–215.

Hair Jr., J.F., Black, W.C., Babin, B.J., Anderson, R.E., & Tatham, R.L. (2006). Multivariate Data Analysis (6th ed). New Jersey: Pearsons Educations.

Hair Jr., J.F., Black, W.C., Babin, B.J., & Anderson, R.E. (2010). Multivariate Data Analysis (7th ed). New Jersey: Pearsons Educations.

Hair Jr., J.F., Hult, G., Thomas, M., Ringle, C.M., & Sarstedt, M. (2014). A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Hamade, Samir (2013). Perception and Use of Social Networking Sites Among University Students. Library Review, 62(6/7), 388–397.

Hansen, M.T. & Birkinshaw, J. (2007). The Innovation Value Chain. Harvard Business Review, 85(6), 181-30.

Han, S.H., Seo, G., Yoon, S.W., & Yoon, D.Y. (2016). Transformational Leadership and Knowledge Sharing: Mediating Roles of Employee’s Empowerment, Commitment, and Citizenship Behaviors. Journal of Workplace Learning, 28(3), 130-149.

House, R., Javidan, M., Hanges, P., & Dorfman, P. (2002). Understanding Cultures and Implicit Leadership Theories Across the Globe: An Introduction to Project GLOBE. Journal of World Business, 37, 3-10.

Humphrey, Amber (2012). Transformational Leadership and Organizational Citizenship Behaviours: The Role of Organizational Identification. The Psychologist-Manager Journal, 15, 247–268.

Iles, P. (2001). Leadership and Leadership Development. The British Journal of Administrative Management, 27, 22-24.

Irani, Tracy (2006). Teaching the Critical Thinking Skills of Explanation. The Agricultural Education Magazine, 78(6), 21-22.

Jannsen, Onne (2000). Job Demands, Perceptions of Effort-Reward Fairness and Innovative Work Behaviour. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 73(3), 287-302.

Jung, D., Chow, C., & Wu, A. (2003). The Role of Transformational Leadership in Enhancing Organizational Innovation: Hypotheses and Some Preliminary Findings. The Leadership Quarterly, 14, 582-59.

Jung, D., Chow, C., & Wu, A. (2008). Towards Understanding the Direct and Indirect Effects of CEOs’ Transformational Leadership on Firm Innovation. The Leadership Quarterly, 19(5), 582-594.

Jyoti, J. & Dev, M. (2015). The Impact of Transformational Leadership on Employee Creativity: The Role of Learning Orientation. Journal of Asia Business Studies, 9(1), 78-98.

Kale, P. & Singh, H. (2000). Learning and Protection of Proprietary Assets in Strategic Alliances: Building Relational Capital. Strategic Management Journal, 21, 217-237.

Kamil, N. & Jailani, J. (2016). Knowledge Sharing: Active Learning Effect to Critical Thinking Skill Mathematics of Primary School Student. Graduate Elementary Education Program, Yogyakarta: Yogyakarta State University.

Keh, H.T., Nguyen, T.T.M., & Ng, H.P. (2007). The Effects of Entrepreneurial Orientation and Marketing Information on the Performance of SMEs. Journal of Business Venturing, 22(4), 592-611.

Khan, J.M., Aslam, N., & Riaz, N.M. (2012). Leadership Style as Predictors of Innovative Work Behaviour. Pakistan Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 9(2), 17-22.

Kleysen, R.F. & Street, C.T. (2001). Toward a Multi-dimensional Measure of Individual Innovative Behaviour. Journal of Intellectual Capital, 2(3), 1469-1930.

Kroes, B. (2015). The Relationship Between Transformational Leadership and Innovative Work Behavior: The Role of Self-Efficacy and The Effect of Perceived Organizational Support on Innovative Work Behavior. (Unpublished Dissertation). Netherlands: Tilburg University.

Leithwood, K. (2018). Characteristics of Effective Leadership Networks: A Replication and Extension. School Leadership & Management.

Li, H., Sajjad, N., Wang, Q., Muhammad Ali, A., Khaqan, Z., & Amina, S. (2019). Influence of Transformational Leadership on Employees’ Innovative Work Behaviour in Sustainable Organizations: Test of Mediation and Moderation Processes. Sustainability 2019, 11(6), 1594. March 15, 2019.

Llorens Montes, F.J., Moreno, A.R., & García-Morales, V.J. (2005). Influence of Support Leadership and Teamwork Cohesion on Organizational Learning, Innovation and Performance: An Empirical Examination. Technovation, 25(10), 1159-1172.

Lovelace, K.J., Manz, C.C., & Alves, J.C. (2007). Work Stress and Leadership Management. In C. Despres and D. Chauvel (Ed). Knowledge Horizons: The Present and the Promise of Knowledge Management (pp 27-54). Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Maholtra, N. (2010). Marketing Research: An Applied Orientation (6th ed.) NJ: Prentice Hall.

Manafi, M. & Subramaniam, I.D. (2015). Relationship Between Human Resources Management Practices, Transformational Leadership, and Knowledge Sharing on Innovation in Iranian Electronic Industry. Asian Social Science, 11(10), 358-385.

Marshall, G. W., Goebel, D. J., & Moncrief, W. C. (2003). Hiring for Success at the Buyer–Seller Interface. Journal of Business Research, 56(4), 247–255.

Mayer, R.C., Davis, J.H., and Schoorman, F.D. (1995). An Integrative Model of Organizational Trust. Academy of Management Review, 11(3), 709-734.

Mayer, J. D., Goleman, D., Barrett, C., & Gutstein, S. (2004). Leading by Feel. Harvard Business Review, 82(1), 27.

Moore, B. N., & Parker, R. (2005). Critical Thinking (8th ed.). Mountain View, CA: Mayfield.

Morgan, Chris & Ramse, Jon (2006). Using Analysis in The Classroom. The Agricultural Education Magazine, 78(6), 14-15

Northouse, P.G. (2001). Leadership Theory and Practice (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Palalić, R., Ramadani, V., Welsh, D.H.B., Dizdarević, A., & Ðilović, A. (2019). Impact of Networking and Business Environment on Student Leadership Styles. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal. December 20, 2019.

Parida,V., Pesämaa, O., Wincent, J., & Westerberg, M. (2017). Network Capability, Innovativeness, and performance: A Multidimensional Extension for Entrepreneurship, Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 29(1-2), 94-115.

Pasaribu, M. (2016). Knowledge, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship. Jakarta: Kepustakaan Populer Gramedia.

Pawar, B.S. & Eastman, K.K. (1997). The Nature and Implications of Contextual Influences on Transformational Leadership: A Conceptual Examination. Academy of Management Review, 22, 80-109.

Pavlou, P.A., & El Sawy, O.A. (2011). Understanding the Elusive Black Box of Dynamic Capabilities. Decision Sciences, 42(1), 239–273. February 23, 2011.

Perez-Penalver, M.J.P, Aznar-Mas, L.E., & Montero-Fleta, B. (2018). Identification and Classification of Behavioural Indicators to Assess Innovation Competence. Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management, 11(1), 87-115.

Piel, Michael A., (2008). Emotional Intelligence and Critical Thinking Relationships to Transformational Leadership. A Dissertation Presented in Partial Fulfillment of The Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Management in Organizational Leadership University of Phoenix.

Pieterse, A.N., Knippenberg, D.V., Schippers, M., & Stam, D. (2009). Transformational and Transactional Leadership and Innovative Behaviour: The Moderating Role of Psychological Empowerment. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 31(4), 609-623.

Pittaway, L., Robertson, M., Munir, K., Denyer, D., & Neely, A. (2004). Networking and Innovation: A Systematic Review of the Evidence. International Journal of Management Reviews, 5-6(3-4), 137–168.

Popadiuk, Silvio, & Choo, Chun Wei (2006). Innovation and Knowledge Creation: How are These Related Concepts? International Journal of Information Management, 26, 302-312.

Rayner, D., Chisholm, H., & Appleby, H. (2002). Developing Leadership Through Action Learning. Nursing Standard, 16(29), 37-40.

Reilly, P. (2004). What Kind of Leader Are You? Technology & Learning, 24(6), 23.

Ricketts, John (2006). It’s All Interpretation. The Agricultural Education Magazine, 78(6), 11-13.

Robbins, S.P. & Judge, T.A. (2013). Organizational Behaviour (15th ed.). New York: Pearson International.

Rodzalan, S.A. & Saat, M.M. (2018). A Mixed-method Analysis on Students’ Critical Thinking and Problem Solving Skill Development in Malaysian Public Universities. International Post Graduate Conference on Applied Science & Physics, 1049(1).

Rosenzweig, P. (2007). By Invitation: The Halo Effect, and Other Managerial Delusions. McKinsey Quarterly, 1(1), 76-85.

Scott, S.G. & Bruce, R.A. (1994). Determinants of Innovative Behaviour: A Path Model of Individual Innovation in the Workplace. The Academy of Management Journal, 37(3), 580-607.

Shunlong, X. & Weiming, Z. (2012). The Relationship Between Transformational Leadership, LMX, and Employee Innovative Behaviour. Journal of Applied Business and Economics, 13(5), 87-96.

Singh, Kavita (2008). Relationship Between Learning Organization and Transformational Leadership: Banking Organizations in India. International Journal of Business and Management Research, 1(1): 97-111

Silberman, Mel, (2005). Active Learning: 101 Strategi Pembelajaran Aktif. Yogyakarta: Insan

Stedman, Nicole (2006). Helping Students Regulate Through Reflection. The Agricultural Education Magazine, 78(6), 23-25.

Sternberg, R. J. (2005). WICS: A Model of Giftedness in Leadership. Roeper Review, 28(1), 37-44.

Tajasom, A., Hung, D.K., Nikbin, D., & Hyung, S.S. (2015). The Role of Transformational Leadership in Innovation Performance of Malaysian SMEs. Asian Journal of Technology Innovation, 23(2), 172-188.

Urabe, K. (1988). Innovation and The Japanese Management System. In Urabe, K., Child, J., & Kagono, T. (Ed). Innovation and Management International Comparisons. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

Van Wart, M. (2003). Public-sector Leadership Theory: An Assessment. Public Administration Review, 63(2), 214-229.

Walter, A., Auer, M., & Ritter, T. (2006). The Impact of Network Capabilities and Entrepreneurial Orientation on University Spin-off Performance. Journal of Business Venturing, 21, 541–567.

Wright, K., Rowitz, L., Merkle, A. (2000). A Conceptual Model for Leadership Development. Journal of Public Health Management Practice. 7 (4), 60-66.

Yukl, G.A. (2010). Leadership in Organizations (7th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Yu-min, H., Huan-huan, X., Wan-ying, C., & Bao-hui, Z. (2017). Research on the Teaching Mode of Literature Reading Course Based on Innovation Ability Cultivating. DEStech Transactions on Social Science, Education and Human Science, 104–106.

Yi, Gloria (2008). Beyond Sharing : Engaging Students in Cooperative and Competitive Active Learning. International Journal of Educational Technology and Society, 11(3), 82-96.

Zhong, Z., Hu, D., Zheng, F., Ding, S., & Luo, A., (2018). Relationship Between Information-Seeking Behavior and Innovative Behavior in Chinese Nursing Student. Nurse Education Today, 63, 1-5.




  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Nina Taniya, Anton Wachidin Widjaja

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Editorial Office:

President University Master of Technology Management Program
Jalan Ki Hajar Dewantara Mekarmukti
Cikarang Utara, Bekasi, Jawa Barat

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.